The main components of the communication process are as follows:
Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological, or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.
Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for a new batch of employees. The sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non-verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining the interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.
Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of the recipient. The communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.
Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange/transmit
the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of an appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - A written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.
Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of the recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.
Feedback - Feedback is the main component of the communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of the message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.